Tuesday, December 18, 2007 

Problem Frames

I became aware of problem frames in the late 90s, while reading an excellent book from Michael Jackson (Software Requirements and Specifications; my Italian readers may want to read my review of the book, straight from 1998).

I found the concept interesting, and a few years later I decided to dig deeper by reading another book from Jackson (Problem Frames: Analyzing and structuring software development problems). Quite interesting, although definitely not a light reading. I cannot say it changed my life or heavily influenced the way I work while I analyze requirements, but it added a few interesting concepts to my bag of tricks.

Lately, I've found an interesting paper by Rebecca Wirfs-Brock, Paul Taylor and James Noble: Problem Frame Patterns: An Exploration of Patterns in the Problem Space. I encourage you to read the paper, even if you're not familiar with the concept of problem frame: in fact, it's probably the best introduction on the subject you can get anywhere.

In the final section (Assessment and Conclusions) the authors compare Problem Frames and Patterns. I'll quote a few lines here:

A problem frame is a template that arranges and describes
phenomena in the problem space, whereas a pattern maps forces to a solution in the solution space.

Patterns are about designing things. The fact that we put problem frames into pattern form demonstrates
that when people write specifications, they are designing too—they are designing the overall system, not its
internal structure. And while problem frames are firmly rooted in the problem space, to us they also suggest

If you read that in light of what I've discussed in my latest post on Form, you may recognize that Problem Frames are about structuring and discovering context, while Design Patterns helps us structure a fitting form.
When Problem Frames suggests solutions, there is a good chance that they're helping us in the elusive game of (to quote Alexander again) bringing harmony between two intangibles: a form which we have not yet designed, and a context which we cannot properly describe.

Back to the concept of Problem Frames, I certainly hope that restating them in a pattern form will foster their adoption. Indeed, the paper above describes what is probably the closest thing to true Analysis Patterns, and may help analysts look more closely at the problem before jumping into use cases and describe the external behaviour of the system.

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